Resolution of acute inflammation is an active process that involves the biosynthesis of specialized proresolving lipid mediators. Among them, resolvin D1 (RvD1) actions are mediated by two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), ALX/FPR2 and GPR32, that also regulate specific microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes in novel resolution circuits. We report the ligand selectivity of RvD1 activation of ALX/FPR2 and GPR32. In addition to RvD1, its aspirin-triggered epimer and RvD1 analogs each dose dependently and effectively activated ALX/FPR2 and GPR32 in GPCR-overexpressing β-arrestin systems using luminescence and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. To corroborate these findings in vivo, neutrophil infiltration in self-limited peritonitis was reduced in human ALX/FPR2-overexpressing transgenic mice that was further limited to 50% by RvD1 treatment with as little as 10 ng of RvD1 per mouse. Analysis of miRNA expression revealed that RvD1 administration significantly up-regulated miR-208a and miR-219 in exudates isolated from ALX/FPR2 transgenic mice compared with littermates. Overexpression of miR-208a in human macrophages up-regulated IL-10. In comparison, in ALX/FPR2 knockout mice, RvD1 neither significantly reduced leukocyte infiltration in zymosan-induced peritonitis nor regulated miR-208a and IL-10 in these mice. Together, these results demonstrate the selectivity of RvD1 interactions with receptors ALX/FPR2 and GPR32. Moreover, they establish a new molecular circuit that is operative in the resolution of acute inflammation activated by the proresolving mediator RvD1 involving specific GPCRs and miRNAs.