Navigating CYP1A induction and arylhydrocarbon receptor agonism in drug discovery. A case history with S1P1 agonists.

Authors: Taylor SJ, Demont EH, Gray J, Deeks N, Patel A, Nguyen D, Taylor M, Hood S, Watson R, Bit RA, McClure F, Ashall H, Witherington J.
Publisher/Year: J Med Chem. 2015 Oct 1.
Pub Med ID/Journal ID: PMID:26393276

Abstract

This article describes the finding of substantial upregulation of mRNA and enzymes of the cytochrome P450 1A family during a lead optimization campaign for small molecule S1P1 agonists. Fold changes in mRNA up to 10 000-fold for CYP1A1 in vivo in rat and cynomolgus monkey and up to 45-fold for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in vitro in rat and human hepatocytes were observed. Challenges observed with correlating induction in vitro and induction in vivo resulted in the implementation of a short, 4 day in vivo screening study in the rat which successfully identified noninducers. Subtle structure-activity relationships in this series of S1P1 agonists are described extending beyond planarity and lipophilicity, and the impact and considerations of AhR and CYP1A induction in the context of drug development are discussed.