BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
The molecular mechanism underlying the clinical efficacy of FTY720-P is thought to involve persistent internalization and enhanced degradation of the S1P1 receptor subtype (S1P1R). We have investigated whether receptor binding kinetics and β-arrestin recruitment could play a role in the persistent internalization of the S1P1R by FTY720-P.
[(3) H]-FTY720-P and [(33) P]-S1P were used to label CHO-S1P1/3Rs for binding studies. Ligand efficacy was assessed through [(35) S]-GTPγS binding and β-arrestin recruitment. Metabolic stability was evaluated using a bioassay measuring intracellular Ca(2+) release. CHO-S1P1/3R numbers were determined, following FTY720-P treatment using flow cytometry.
The kinetic off-rate of [(3) H]-FTY720-P from the S1P1R was sixfold slower than from the S1P3R, and comparable to [(33) P]-S1P dissociation from S1P1/3Rs. S1P and FTY720-P stimulated [(35) S]-GTPγS incorporation to similar degrees, but FTY720-P was over 30-fold less potent at S1P3Rs. FTY720-P stimulated a higher level of β-arrestin recruitment at S1P1Rs, 132% of the total recruited by S1P. In contrast, FTY720-P was a weak partial agonist at S1P3R, stimulating just 29% of the total β-arrestin recruited by S1P. Internalization experiments confirmed that cell surface expression of the S1P1R but not the S1P3R was reduced following a pulse exposure to FTY720-P, which is metabolically stable unlike S1P.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:
FTY720-P and S1P activation of the S1P1R results in receptor internalization as a consequence of an efficient recruitment of β-arrestin. The combination of slow off-rate, efficacious β-arrestin recruitment and metabolic stability all contribute to FTY720-P's ability to promote prolonged S1P1R internalization and may be critical factors in its efficacy in the clinic.