Identifying bias in CCR1 antagonists using radiolabelled binding, receptor internalization, β-arrestin translocation andchemotaxis assays.

Authors: Gilchrist A, Gauntner TD, Fazzini A, Alley KM, Pyen DS, Ahn J, Ha SJ, Willett A, Sansom SE, Yarfi JL, Bachovchin KA, Mazzoni MR, Merritt JR.
Publisher/Year: Br J Pharmacol. 171(22):5127-38.
Pub Med ID/Journal ID: PMID:24990525



Investigators have suggested that the chemokine receptor CCR1 plays a role in multiple myeloma. Studies using antisense and neutralizing antibodies to CCR1 showed that down-regulation of the receptor altered disease progression in a mouse model. More recently, experiments utilizing scid mice injected with human myeloma cells demonstrated that the CCR1 antagonist BX471 reduced osteolytic lesions, while the CCR1 antagonist MLN-3897 prevented myeloma cell adhesion to osteoclasts. However, information is limited regarding the pharmacology of CCR1 antagonists in myeloma cells.


We compared several well-studied CCR1 antagonists including AZD4818, BX471, CCX354, CP-481715, MLN-3897 and PS899877 for their ability to inhibit binding of [(125)I]-CCL3 in vitro using membranes prepared from RPMI 8226 cells, a human multiple myeloma cell line that endogenously expresses CCR1. In addition, antagonists were assessed for their ability to modulate CCL3-mediated internalization of CCR1 and CCL3-mediated cell migration using RPMI 8226 cells. As many GPCRs signal through β-arrestin-dependent pathways that are separate and distinct from those driven by G-proteins, we also evaluated the compounds for their ability to alter β-arrestin translocation.


There were clear differences between the CCR1 antagonists in their ability to inhibit CCL3 binding to myeloma cells, as well as in their ability to inhibit G-protein-dependent and -independent functional responses.


Our studies demonstrate that tissue phenotype seems to be relevant with regards to CCR1. Moreover, it appears that for CCR1 antagonists, inhibition of β-arrestin translocation is not necessarily linked to chemotaxis or receptor internalization.