The metabolite GnRH-(1-5) inhibits the migration of immortalized GnRH neurons.

Authors: Larco DO, Cho-Clark M, Mani SK and Wu TJ.
Publisher/Year: Endocrinology 154(2):783-95.
Pub Med ID/Journal ID: PMID:23321696

Abstract

The decapeptide GnRH is an important regulator of reproductive behavior and function. In the extracellular matrix, GnRH is metabolized by the endopeptidase EC3.4.24.15 (EP24.15) to generate the pentapeptide GnRH-(1-5). In addition to its expression in the adult hypothalamus, EP24.15 is expressed along the migratory path of GnRH-expressing neurons during development. Although we have previously demonstrated a role for EP24.15 in the generation of the biologically active pentapeptide GnRH-(1-5) in regulating GnRH expression and mediating sexual behavior during adulthood in rodents, the modulatory role of GnRH-(1-5) in the migration of GnRH neurons during development remains unknown. To address this information gap, we examined the effect of GnRH-(1-5) on the cellular migration of a premigratory GnRH-secreting neuronal cell line, the GN11 cell, using a wound-healing assay. Dose- and time-response studies demonstrated that GnRH-(1-5) significantly delayed wound closure. We then sought to identify the mechanism by which GnRH-(1-5) inhibits migration. Because the cognate GnRH receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor, we examined whether GnRH-(1-5) regulates migration by also activating a G protein-coupled receptor. Using a high-throughput β-arrestin recruitment assay, we identified an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPR173) that was specifically activated by GnRH-(1-5). Interestingly, small interfering RNA to GPR173 reversed the GnRH-(1-5)-mediated inhibition on migration of GN11 neurons. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the GnRH-(1-5)-activated GPR173-dependent signal transduction pathway involves the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in GnRH migration. These findings indicate a potential regulatory role for GnRH-(1-5) in GnRH neuronal migration during development.